Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs <p><em>FQS</em> is a peer-reviewed multilingual online journal for qualitative research. <em>FQS</em> issues are published three times a year. Selected single contributions and contributions to the journal's regular features <em>FQS</em> Reviews, <em>FQS</em> Debates, <em>FQS</em> Conferences and <em>FQS</em> Interviews are part of each issue. Additionally, thematic issues are published according to prior agreement with the <em>FQS </em>Editors<em>.</em></p> <p><em>FQS</em> is an <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access" target="_blank" rel="noopener">open-access</a> journal, so all articles are available free of charge and published under a <a href="fqs/submission/copyright">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Current Issue: <a href="fqs/issue/current">Current</a></li> <li class="show">Back Issues: <a href="fqs/issue/archive">Archives</a></li> </ul> <p>Please <a href="fqs/user/register">register</a> if you are interested to receive our newsletter, distributed three times per year to inform about new publications and other news, important for qualitative researchers.</p> en-US FQS@qualitative-research.net (Katja Mruck) info@qualitative-research.net (FQS) Sun, 29 Jan 2023 13:12:28 +0100 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Innovative Applications and Future Directions in Mixed Methods and Multimethod Social Research https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4013 <p>In this editorial, we introduce the <em>FQS</em> special issue "Mixed Methods and Multimethod Social Research—Current Applications and Future Directions" by firstly considering changes and continuities in the field since the publication of <em>FQS</em> <em>2</em>(1) on "Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Conjunctions and Divergences" (SCHREIER &amp; FIELDING, 2001). We then provide a brief overview of the historical development of mixed research approaches over the past 20 years so as to arrive at a concise description of the status quo. We highlight some of the advances made by researchers applying integrative designs in multiple research areas, as well as methodologists analyzing the conceptual groundwork of mixed methods and multimethod research (MMMR). However, we also point out some of the critical issues remaining to be resolved, including the increasing internal fragmentation of the MMMR discourse and a seemingly growing gap between MMMR methodology and empirical research practice. We conclude by introducing the 13 contributions assembled in this volume.</p> Felix Knappertsbusch, Margrit Schreier, Nicole Burzan, Nigel Fielding Copyright (c) 2023 Margrit Schreier, Felix Knappertsbusch, Nicole Burzan, Nigel Fielding http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4013 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Strangers in Paradigms!? Alternatives to Paradigm-Bound Methodology and Methodological Confessionalism https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4015 <p>In our paper we discuss and criticize an idea which is often taken for granted in methodological discourses about mixed methods: namely that social researchers in general and mixed methods researchers in particular have to adopt a specific epistemological paradigm (a set of beliefs which have to be accepted a priori) before they can meaningfully perform research. By examining different versions of this model of paradigm-bound methodology which Yvonna LINCOLN and Egon GUBA had developed between the 1980s and 2010s, we will discuss implications of the notion <em>paradigm</em> and show that several of the paradigms proposed as the basis of research (e.g., positivism or constructivism) are ill-defined, lack coherence and are only superficially related to actual developments in the history of philosophical thought or contemporary epistemological debates. As an alternative to paradigm-bound methodology we will propose that researchers apply methods in an epistemologically informed way by employing epistemological concepts not as immutable givens but as heuristic devices which are used to identify and solve methodological problems. We will exemplify our approach by means of data from our own mixed methods study in which we simultaneously drew on realist and constructivist concepts to foster the understanding of contradictory statistical results.</p> Udo Kelle, Florian Reith Copyright (c) 2023 Florian Reith, Udo Kelle http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4015 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Mixed Methods and Their Pragmatic Approach: Is There a Risk of Being Entangled in a Positivist Epistemology and Methodology? Limits, Pitfalls and Consequences of a Bricolage Methodology https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4005 <p>Since the early 2000s, the <em>pragmatic</em> approach has been proposed as a philosophical program for social research, regardless of whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods are used. In addition, current mixed methods have been presented as a third way between positivism and constructivism. However, can mixed methods be fully considered a third way? For instance, in their inquiries, will scholars oriented to pragmatism actually employ the traditional and standardized questionnaire, with forced choices and closed questions, which strongly limits any interpretative and interactional perspective? Hence, several theoretical and methodological difficulties of the pragmatist proposal emerge precisely (and paradoxically) at the level of research practice. The pragmatic approach is presented by its proponents as a model designed to dissolve differences and neutralize epistemological barriers; however, without problematizing and removing the positivist features of their methods, researchers oriented to pragmatism actually risk ending up reproducing positivism in disguise. Hence, despite their claims to innovation, proponents of pragmatism are often overly traditionalist in their use of methods.</p> Giampietro Gobo Copyright (c) 2023 Giampietro Gobo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4005 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The Fundamental Difference Between Qualitative and Quantitative Data in Mixed Methods Research https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3986 <p>Mixed methods research is commonly defined as the combination and integration of qualitative and quantitative data. However, defining these two data types has proven difficult. In this article, I argue that qualitative and quantitative data are fundamentally different, and this difference is not about words and numbers but about condensation and structure. As qualitative data are analyzed with qualitative methods and quantitative data with quantitative methods, we cannot analyze one type of data with the other type of method. Quantitative data analysis can reveal new patterns, but these are always related to the existing variables, whereas qualitative data analysis can reveal new aspects that are hidden in the data. To consider data as quantitative or qualitative, we should judge these data as end products, not in terms of the process through which they come into being. Thus, quantitizing qualitative data results in quantitative data and the analysis thereof is quantitative, not mixed, data analysis. For mixed data analysis, both <em>real</em>, non-quantitized qualitative data and quantitative data are needed. As these quantitative data may be quantitized qualitative data, the implication is that, contrary to a common view, mixed methods research does not necessarily involve quantitative data collection.</p> Judith Schoonenboom Copyright (c) 2023 Judith Schoonenboom http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3986 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Are There Assessment Criteria for Qualitative Findings? A Challenge Facing Mixed Methods Research https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3935 <p>If findings from qualitative and quantitative components in mixed methods research are to be synthesised, the quality of each must be assessed. But an obvious problem is that there are no generally agreed criteria for assessing qualitative findings. The question of criteria has long been debated in the methodological literature. I argue that some important distinctions need to be made if progress is to be achieved on this issue. Perhaps the most important one is between the standards in terms of which assessment is carried out and the indicators used to evaluate findings in relation to those standards. I go on to outline what I believe is involved in such evaluations, rejecting the possibility of a detailed and explicit set of indicators that can immediately be used to determine the validity of knowledge claims. My approach broadly fits the framework of mixed methods research, since I deny that there is any fundamental philosophical difference between quantitative and qualitative methods. But it is at odds with widespread views, even within the realm of mixed methods, whose advocates seek radically to redefine the ontological, epistemological, and/or axiological assumptions of social scientific research, for example in the name of a <em>transformative</em> approach.</p> Martyn Hammersley Copyright (c) 2023 Martyn Hammersley http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3935 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 From Paradigm Wars to Peaceful Coexistence? A Sociological Perspective on the Qualitative-Quantitative-Divide and Future Directions for Mixed Methods Methodology https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3966 <p>Social research today is marked by a contradictory constellation: Even though calls for methodological pluralism are prevalent and the principles of method integration are widely accepted, researchers still largely reproduce the traditional qualitative-quantitative-divide in their methodological boundary making. Actual applications of mixed and multimethod research remain a niche phenomenon. I argue that the reasons for this persistence of methodological schisms are, on the one hand, to be found in the way that pluralistic norms have successfully been integrated into the rhetoric with which proponents of qualitative and quantitative research traditions distinguish their approaches against each other. On the other hand, they also lie in the current mixed-methods-discourse and the related focus on textbook methodology and paradigmatic group identity. To strengthen the impact of mixed methods as a meta-reflexive critique of methodological schisms, methodologists should incorporate empirical studies of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research practice into their work, and shift their focus more towards the social and cultural factors influencing methodological divisions. I outline what I consider to be core elements of such a <em>post-methodological</em> approach to mixed and multimethod methodology.</p> Felix Knappertsbusch Copyright (c) 2023 Felix Knappertsbusch http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3966 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Communities of Scholars and Mixed Methods Research: Relationships Among Fields and Researchers https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4008 <p>In this paper I explore processes of knowledge production and circulation within a specific research community: the self-identified community of mixed methods scholars—i.e., the group of researchers adopting a mixed methods approach and using the label <em>mixed methods</em>—during the phase of its emergence and institutionalization. I focus on citations within this community, considering that the act of citing is linked to the intention of scholars to position their work not only within a research area but also within a community contributing to that specific area. I employed strategies from citation network analysis (CNA) to understand the fields involved, as well as the structure of the community in relation to citation practices. I identified the most common subjects and methodological fields in which <em>mixed methods</em> are mentioned by isolating sub-communities and the most influential authors in the network. I discuss the implications of this network structure with regard to power relations and hegemony. This also includes the function of nodes which appear to be marginal, but are relevant in citation practices since these authors play a bridging role across the various sub-communities.</p> Noemi Novello Copyright (c) 2023 Noemi Novello http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4008 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Mixed Methods Longitudinal Research https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4012 <p>Longitudinal research holds great promise for researching change and continuity. Qualitative and quantitative longitudinal research can be combined within a mixed methods framework, which enables gaining complementary insights that are more nuanced and more valid. However, longitudinal research generally entails more practical challenges than cross-sectional research. Further, combining qualitative and quantitative strategies in mixed methods longitudinal research (MMLR) multiplies these challenges. In this publication, I start by conceptualizing qualitative and quantitative longitudinal research and highlighting their respective strengths and challenges. I subsequently outline design options and implications of mixed methods longitudinal projects. Hereby, I distinguish traditional dimensions of mixed methods and longitudinal research designs, such as time and timing, priority, purpose, sampling, data collection, analysis and interpretation, and reporting. In MMLR these dimensions have an extended time dimension because these design decisions have to be made or revisited in each wave. With this contribution, I aim to advance conceptual thinking in an area of research that is certainly underdeveloped, but has great potential.</p> Susanne Vogl Copyright (c) 2023 Susanne Vogl http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4012 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Mixing Standardized Administrative Data and Survey Data With Qualitative Content Analysis in Longitudinal Designs: Perceptions of Justified Pensions and Related Life Courses https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4003 <p>Citizens are more likely to accept reforms of welfare state arrangements if they perceive them as just and reasonable. However, the concept of social justice is multidimensional. For instance, in discourses on old-age security, justice is addressed in terms of meritocratic principles, demands, processes, redistribution, gender, or intergenerational equity.</p> <p>In the study "Lebensverläufe und Altersvorsorge" (LeA) [Life Courses and Old-Age Provision], respondents could express their wishes for retirement and the German statutory pension system in an open-ended question. We draw on this study to illustrate who addresses which social justice dimensions and how. Methodologically, we mixed standardized administrative and survey data with qualitative content analysis.</p> <p>More generally, we aim to highlight the rich analytical potential and challenges of open-ended questions. We reflect on methodological issues, e.g., the time-consuming preparation and interpretation of an enormous amount of non-standardized data, the interview situation compared to conventional qualitative interviews as well as interpretation difficulties due to missing contextual information. Furthermore, we prepared the open-ended question for quantitative analysis and integrated it into the data set while preserving its qualitative character. Finally, to illustrate options for joint analyses, we combined content analysis results with sequence/cluster analysis for longitudinal quantitative data.</p> Leila Akremi, Dagmar Zanker Copyright (c) 2023 Leila Akremi, Dagmar Zanker http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4003 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Combining Graphic Elicitation Methods and Narrative Family Interviews in a Qualitative Multimethod Design https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3970 <p>By combining different methods, researchers can use the strengths of each to compensate the constraints of others and to more comprehensively examine their research topic. In this article, I elaborate upon the strengths and weaknesses of timelines and genograms (visual data, graphic elicitation) in comparison to narrative family interviews (verbal data collection). I explain why we integrated these methods in a collaborative research project, and discuss how we used them for the purposes of comparison, mutual compensation, or complementarity during sampling, data collection, and analysis. The methodological arguments are illustrated with empirical examples from a research project on status maintenance in middle-class families to show how we used the three methods to explore complementary perspectives on individual and linked lives and to analyze longitudinal biographical data and three-generation relationships. My intention is to open up new methodological perspectives for qualitative as well as mixed method researchers by reflecting on our qualitative design using concepts from the mixed methods and multimethod research (MMMR) discourse. Furthermore, I would like to contribute to advancing the MMMR discourse in regard to still underrepresented reconstructive or interpretative approaches. My overall aim is to reflect upon the epistemological problem of how scientists and respondents (re)construct the object of research through different methods.</p> Andrea Hense Copyright (c) 2023 Andrea Hense http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3970 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Nested Sampling in Sequential Mixed Methods Research Designs: Comparing Recipe and Result https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4004 <p>In this contribution, I focus on nested sampling as it is applied in sequential quantitative-qualitative mixed methods research. The function of this design element is to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. I refer to a specific type of recommendation that has proved particularly useful for the analysis of social milieus. An important feature of this approach is that the quantitative sample is divided into subgroups in order to then collect more qualitative data than would otherwise be the case. I present two projects in which nested sampling was implemented in this respect, but each in a different way. Subsequently, recipe and result will be compared. This reveals a number of discrepancies that are of interest both from a methodological point of view and in terms of research application. Above all, it will become clear that nested sampling is not only applicable to the analysis of social milieus. The same approach can also be applied to the analysis of complex causal relationships. But it may be difficult to provide all subgroups with sufficient qualitative cases. As I will show, nested sampling can be employed and implemented in such studies as well. However, the effort involved should not be underestimated.</p> Pascal Tanner Copyright (c) 2023 Pascal Tanner http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4004 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Challenges of Multimethod and Mixed Methods Designs in Museum Research https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3988 <p>In this article, we draw on two research projects on museums to present how we combined qualitative and quantitative methods (e.g. semi-structured interviews, non-standardised observations, focused ethnographies, ethnographic observations and conversations; standardised surveys and observations), which designs we used, and which opportunities and challenges we encountered. Given today's pluralised museum landscape, the research involved questions of whether and to what extent museums are oriented to offering experiences and which role museum guards play beyond their security function. We show how combining different methods can be particularly fruitful for examining fields characterised by a range of tensions from different perspectives. On the one hand, this allows us to grasp the (conflictual) interplay of different dimensions (actors, exhibition aesthetics, concepts, discourses), and on the other hand, we can broadly situate our objects of research and interpretations. The first challenge we discuss is the temporality of the empirical procedure, including questions of how linear and iterative approaches as well as procedures running in parallel and sequentially can be integrated. Secondly, we ask to what extent findings from different approaches and museums can be compared with each other during the analysis—broadly or deeply, with regard to the number of museums or dimensions.</p> Jennifer Eickelmann, Nicole Burzan Copyright (c) 2023 Jennifer Eickelmann, Nicole Burzan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3988 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Mixed Methods in Research on the Psychology of the Internet and Social Media https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4009 <p>Research on the psychology of the Internet and social media (POISM) is characterized by a heavy methodological compartmentalization. In the current contribution we show empirically that 1. quantitative methods constitute the preferred gold standard of the field's mainstream (favored over qualitative and mixed methods), 2. the field is divided into separate communities of practice (psychology, communication, cultural/media studies), each with their own type of causal claims and associated methods. To show this we content analyze published articles in 2020 across six pertinent POISM journals for instances of <em>quantitative</em>, <em>qualitative</em>, and <em>mixed methods</em> as well as <em>regularity-type</em> versus <em>subjective meaning-type</em> causal logic. We find that regularity-type causal logic is at the center of quantitative research practices in psychology and communication, while qualitative subjective meaning-type causal logic is adopted by scholars in cultural/media studies, with hardly any overlap in between, and only few mixed methods studies. To describe how the research area would profit from mixed methods approaches, we subsequently present a mixed methods study about social media-based integration patterns of Korean and Turkish-heritage individuals in Germany. We conclude by dissolving some of the exclusive stereotyped notions of causality and methods in POISM research and suggest avenues for methodologically more inclusive practices of inquiry.</p> Özen Odağ, Alexandra Mittelstädt Copyright (c) 2023 Özen Odağ, Alexandra Mittelstädt http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4009 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Mixed Methods Research on Learning and Instruction—Meeting the Challenges of Multiple Perspectives and Levels Within a Complex Field https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3989 <p>In this paper, we present and discuss mixed methods research in the context of research on learning and instruction. Education as a field of research can be viewed as highly complex. This complexity is reflected at various levels of the educational system, which are highly interrelated, and where multiple perspectives must be considered, as well as in the reciprocal and intertwined relationships between factors related to learning and instruction. Therefore, we first introduce one of the central theories on the quality of learning and instruction: the offer-and-use model. Second, we review the methodological foundations of research on learning and instruction. Two methodological approaches are discussed in more detail and their strengths and weaknesses are elaborated. Third, we present two studies from our research program and focus on their methodological implementation. Thus, we illustrate significant challenges and opportunities for implementing a mixed methods study in schools. Finally, we discuss the implications for school-based mixed methods research. We conclude the paper with general suggestions on how mixed methods approaches might be further advanced in applied school-based research.</p> Mathias Mejeh, Gerda Hagenauer, Michaela Gläser-Zikuda Copyright (c) 2023 Mathias Mejeh, Gerda Hagenauer, Michaela Gläser-Zikuda http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3989 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Qualitative Social Research at a Distance: Potentials and Challenges of Virtual Interviews https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4010 <p>Due to the coronavirus pandemic, the practice of qualitative interviewing has recently undergone a strong trend toward virtualization. The <em>gold standard</em> of conducting face-to-face interviews had to be translated into a digital format, enabling researchers to conduct interviews at a distance. In this article, we reflect on the opportunities and limitations of virtual interviews and consider epistemological consequences in the wake of their increased use and acceptance. Methodological questions arise regarding empirical topics, sampling, social interview situations, as well as the technical setting. We further reflect on the advantages and disadvantages of interviews at a distance and suggest that this novel form of interviewing may soon become the <em>new normal</em>.</p> Manuel Nicklich, Silke Röbenack, Stefan Sauer, Jasmin Schreyer, Amelie Tihlarik Copyright (c) 2023 Jasmin Schreyer, Manuel Nicklich, Silke Röbenack, Stefan Sauer, Amelie Tihlarik http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/4010 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 "You Know Now—Talk About It!" Decolonial Research Perspectives and Missions Assigned in the Research Field https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3974 <p>Global relationships of unequal power are perpetuated by academic knowledge production. The latter clearly reflect epistemic violence as well as geopolitical (im)balances of power and knowledge. Decolonializing forms of academic knowledge production and no longer speaking only <em>about</em> and <em>on behalf of</em> the subjects as <em>other</em> is thus an important component of qualitative social science from the perspective of research ethics. In this article, I look into the question of how researchers can develop the potential for reciprocal research through "missions" that are assigned to them by specific actors i.e., oppressed people in the field. To this end, I will present my reflections on research ethics using dialogues gathered in my ethnographic research in southern Spain on the practices of migrant farm workers.</p> Olaf Tietje Copyright (c) 2023 Olaf Tietje http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3974 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 "Small Stories" as Methodological Approach: Reflections on Biographical Narratives Based on an Ethnographic Research Project With Refugee Students https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3784 <p>Based on a research project with refugee students, in this article we present three forms of "small" biographical narratives that can be used as a methodological approach instead of the biographical-narrative interview: The first form, guided narratives with low-threshold narrative impulses allow for the articulation of biographical experiences and multiple ways of participating. The other two forms are based on ethnographic observations: In contact with the research team, it "happened" that the students casually told small stories giving insight into their biographical situation and their everyday life, similar to what they do in interaction with their teachers. The teachers in turn told the researchers stories about stories they had heard from the young people. The precondition for these narrations was an extended ethnographic field phase, during which the research relationships in the field could be established successively. The researchers became involved in the everyday narrative practices of the pedagogical field and were able to gain insights into their function. A main result is to analyze biographical narrative not only as an outcome of an individual structure of experience, but also as an interactive work of belonging, which is particularly relevant in schools. Finally, research with "small stories" is particularly indicated when the vulnerability of the research participants (e.g., young refugees) is high, the institutional setting (e.g., school) hinders/impedes free biographical narrating, or when the preconditions for articulating one's own perspective in a field are very unequally distributed (e.g., multilingualism).</p> Bettina Dausien, Nadja Thoma Copyright (c) 2023 Bettina Dausien, Nadja Thoma http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3784 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Behind the Chair: "Doing Hair" and "Flipping the Script" in Interviews on the Sensitive Topics of Religion and Sexual Experiences https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3905 <p>Religion and sexual experience are deemed sensitive topics to research. I aim to elucidate how I used hairdressing as an activity during qualitative interviews to aid in researching the relationship between religious-cultural upbringing and women's sexual experiences in Northern Ireland. There has been little recognition of the subjective sexual experiences of adult women in Northern Ireland; this is partly due to the dominance of Roman Catholicism and Evangelical Fundamentalism's religious practices in the country and their promotion of morally conservative ideas around women's bodies and sexual activity. This, in turn, has allowed a moral, religious perspective on sexual activity to have a high level of significance for the individual in Northern Ireland and society, making it challenging to research. I will explore how "doing hair" during qualitative interviews can help to combat issues associated with researching sensitive topics using GOFFMAN's (1956) dramaturgical analysis and HOCHSCHILD's (1983) emotional labor concept. I argue that utilizing the routine performances between the hairdresser and client and "flipping the script" on the researcher/participant vs. hairdresser/client power relations can aid in the disclosure of the socially and culturally sensitive topics of religion and sexual experiences.</p> Ruth Flanagan Copyright (c) 2023 Ruth flanagan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3905 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 "Bring a Picture, Song, or Poem": Expression Sessions as a Participatory Methodology https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3927 <p>Participatory research approaches in which participants are placed at the center of the research have been successfully used to facilitate research engagement and open expression. In this article we describe our experiences of using a novel, hybrid participatory methodology called expression sessions (ES) with adolescents. We specifically explain how the ES method was conceptualized and operationalized and offer reflections on the usefulness of this approach. Our study was implemented through 24 focus group discussions with 144 adolescent participants aged 12-17 years old. We found the ES method valuable to encourage active participation, facilitate open and meaningful expressions, and enhance collaborative reflection. Through the ES approach participants had the freedom to choose their most proficient ways of expression, which facilitated reflection and discussion of issues in new meaningful ways. In this article thus we present an alternative, participatory methodology that can easily be adopted by qualitative researchers and with diverse samples.</p> Candice Groenewald, Zaynab Essack Copyright (c) 2023 Candice Groenewald, Zaynab Essack http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3927 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Telling the History of Social Sciences Performatively: Background and Genesis of the Webcomic "Pragmatism Reloaded. The Settlers of Chicago" https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3946 <p>With performative social science, questions of science communication and of subject matter appropriateness take on new meaning. We illustrate this in this article by examining the creative process and background of the webcomic "Pragmatism Reloaded. The Settlers of Chicago," in which the story of the women's research collective of Chicago's Hull House settlement, and the creation of the "Hull-House Maps and Papers" (RESIDENTS OF HULL-HOUSE, 2007 [1895]) study in particular, is told. Discussing issues of subject matter appropriateness, we combine aspects of scholarly communication with the debate on performative social science and performative learning. We argue that through the webcomic and its creative process, essential features of life at Hull House—pioneering methods through the use of imagery and the relevance of art in shaping democratic coexistence—have been taken up and processed in a new form.</p> Ursula Offenberger, Leah Stange, Sofia Kohler, Anna-Maria Kamenik Copyright (c) 2023 Ursula Offenberger, Leah Stange, Sofia Kohler, Anna-Maria Kamenik http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3946 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Go-Along Interviews as a Method for Social-Ecological Research on Urban Nature https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3923 <p>The application of go-along interviews allows an integrated mix of methods, combining qualitative interviews with participant observation. This facilitates linking discourses and practices. The method's particular sensitivity to the spatial embeddedness and reflection of social processes has been evaluated and described in various research contexts. In our article, we highlight the added value of go-along interviews for social-ecological and transdisciplinary research. The COVID-19 lockdowns and their effects on everyday practices of urban residents served as a lens to trace interactions with nature that have been habitualized into everyday walks. Discussing specific episodes from our interviews, we reflect on methodological features of go-along interviews, such as generating narratives, considering material environments and non-human actors, opening up memories and experiences, reconstructing evaluations, and enabling self-reflection. We contrast these potentials with specific challenges in the application of go-along interviews, especially with regard to the accessibility of the interview space, the methodical requirements of the dynamic interview situation, and the altered relationship between interviewer and interviewee. Considering these challenges, conducting go-along interviews can significantly enrich both, the scientific descriptions of urban ecology and the methodological spectrum of research on urban nature. Furthermore, go-along interviews provide a conceptual proximity to transdisciplinary, participatory, and transformative research.</p> Lukas Sattlegger, Anna S. Brietzke, Melina Stein, Florian D. Schneider Copyright (c) 2023 Lukas Sattlegger, Anna S. Brietzke, Melina Stein, Florian D. Schneider http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3923 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100 "I Took the Photograph Just to Show You a Little Bit of Perspective": Photo-Elicitation Interviewing With Family Caregivers in the Dementia Context https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3928 <p style="margin-bottom: 0.5cm; line-height: 0.5cm; widows: 2; orphans: 2;" align="LEFT"><span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Photo-elicitation interviewing (PEI) is a well-known approach in qualitative inquiry. Yet existing literature lacks sufficient information on participants' perspectives on using photographs to explicate their experiences and ways in which their captured photographs can enhance understanding of the phenomenon under study, especially in the dementia context. In this article, I report on participants' experiences of partaking in the auto-driven approach of PEI in a qualitative descriptive study on family caregiving experiences to a relative living with dementia. Five family caregivers participated in the PEI process and provided 28 photographs that represented their experiences. Using thematic analysis, an overarching theme, <em>facilitated deeper shared understandings</em> was identified, underpinning three main themes about the participants' experiences of PEI, i.e., it 1. <em>promoted more in-depth reflection and new perspectives</em>; 2. <em>enabled richer dialogue</em>; and 3. <em>revealed complex and otherwise hidden experiences</em>. Findings show that PEI is an effective method for researchers to further understand the complex and multifaceted experiences involved in caring for a relative, living with dementia. Thoughtful implementation of using participant-taken photographs in interviews can provide a richer level of understanding and the means through which family caregivers can contribute to meaning-making relevant to the relational aspects of caregiving in the dementia context.</span></span></p> Angel He Wang Copyright (c) 2023 Angel He Wang http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/3928 Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0100