Counteraction as a Crucial Factor of Learning, Education and Development: Opposition to Help

  • Alexander N. Poddiakov Moscow State University
Keywords: help, competition, counteraction, learning, instruction, education, development


Development of individuals, social groups and societies has been considered under the influence of two opposite and interrelated types of social interactions: (a) support of, and (b) counteraction and inhibition of learning, instruction, education and development. Reasons for the counteraction, and types of its interrelations with help in different areas of human activities have been described. Negative and positive effects both of help and counteraction have been analyzed. A conceptual system of various zones of development through different social interactions in education is presented. It is shown that complex of cognitive and motivational factors, related to the counteraction, can lead to both regression and progress in development with unpredictable results. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0103156


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Author Biography

Alexander N. Poddiakov, Moscow State University
Alexander N. PODDIAKOV is a Senior Researcher on Faculty of Psychology of Moscow State University, Russia. He received his first PhD at the University, and the second PhD in Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education. Areas of scientific interests are development of exploratory behavior and strategies of social interactions.